Skip to content

Acknowledgments

I received considerable help and inspiration from various people while writing this book.

First and foremost I would like to thank my student Haobin Ni with whom I've had numerous discussions about the initial design of Harmony. Haobin even contributed some code to the Harmony compiler. Many thanks are also due to William Ma who refactored the Harmony code to make it easier to maintain. He also wrote the first version of the behavior automaton generator and created the first graphs using the graphviz tool. I have had lots of discussions with him about a wide range of improvements to the Harmony language, many of which came to fruition. I also want to thank Ariel Kellison with whom I discussed approaches to formally specify the Harmony virtual machine in TLA+.

Kevin Sun and Anthony Yang built a beautiful VSCode extension for Harmony called HarmonyLang and proceeded to build an animator for Harmony executions and two cloud-based Harmony offerings, which you can learn about at http://harmony.cs.cornell.edu. They also developed much of that web site and made valuable suggestions for improvements to the Harmony language. Later they were joined by Shi Chong Zhao, who also made significant contributions. Kevin and Anthony continue to make great contributions to the Harmony distribution.

Most of what I know about concurrent programming I learned from my colleague Fred Schneider. He suggested I write this book after demonstrating Harmony to him. Being a foremost security expert, he also assisted significantly with the chapter on the Needham-Schroeder protocol.

Leslie Lamport introduced me to using model checking to test properties of a concurrent system. My experimentation with using TLC on Peterson's Algorithm became an aha moment for me. I have learned so much from his papers.

I first demonstrated Harmony to the students in my CS6480 class on systems and formal verification and received valuable feedback from them.

The following people contributed by making comments on or finding bugs in early drafts of the book: Alex Chang, Anneke van Renesse, Brendon Nguyen, Hartek Sabharwal, Heather Zheng, Jack Rehmann, Jacob Brugh, Liam Arzola, Lorenzo Alvisi, Maria Martucci, Nalu Concepcion, Phillip O'Reggio, Saleh Hassen, Sunwook Kim, Terryn Jung, Trishita Tiwari, Xiangyu Zhang, Yidan Wang, Zhuoyu Xu, and Zoltan Csaki.

Finally, I would like to thank my family who had to suffer as I obsessed over writing the code and the book, at home, during the turbulent months of May and June 2020.

Bibliography

Agha, Gul. 1986. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems (Doctoral Dissertation). Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.

Andrews, Tony, Shaz Qadeer, Sriram K. Rajamani, Jakob Rehof, and Yichen Xie. 2004. “Zing: A Model Checker for Concurrent Software.” In International Conference on Computer Aided Verification (CAV).

Attiya, Hagit, Amotz Bar-Noy, and Danny Dolev. 1995. “Sharing Memory Robustly in Message-Passing Systems.” J. ACM 42 (1): 124–42. https://doi.org/10.1145/200836.200869.

Bélády, László A., R. A. Nelson, and G. S. Shedler. 1969. “An Anomaly in Space-Time Characteristics of Certain Programs Running in a Paging Machine.” Communications of the ACM 12 (6): 349–53.

Ben-Or, Michael. 1983. “Another Advantage of Free Choice (Extended Abstract): Completely Asynchronous Agreement Protocols.” In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, 27–30. PODC’83. New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/800221.806707.

Birrell, Andrew D. 1989. “An Introduction to Programming with Threads.” SRC report 35. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Digital Systems Research Center.

Brinch Hansen, Per. 1973. Operating System Principles. USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Chang, Ernest, and Rosemary Roberts. 1979. “An Improved Algorithm for Decentralized Extrema-Finding in Circular Configurations of Processes.” Commun. ACM 22 (5): 281–83. https://doi.org/10.1145/359104.359108.

Clarke, Edmund M., E. Allen Emerson, and A. Prasad Sistla. 1986. “Automatic Verification of Finite-State Concurrent Systems Using Temporal Logic Specifications.” ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 8 (2): 244–63. https://doi.org/10.1145/5397.5399.

Coffman, Edward G., Melanie Elphick, and Arie Shoshani. 1971. “System Deadlocks.” ACM Comput. Surv. 3 (2): 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1145/356586.356588.

Corbató, Fernando J. 1969. “A Paging Experiment with the Multics System.” In In Honor of Philip m. Morse, 217–28.

Cordeiro, Lucas, Pascal Kesseli, Daniel Kroening, Peter Schrammel, and Marek Trtik. 2018. “JBMC: A Bounded Model Checking Tool for Verifying Java Bytecode.” In Computer Aided Verification (CAV), 10981:183–90. LNCS. Springer.

Courtois, Pierre-Jacques, Frans Heymans, and David L. Parnas. 1971. “Concurrent Control with ‘Readers’ and ‘Writers’.” Commun. ACM 14 (10): 667–68. https://doi.org/10.1145/362759.362813.

Diffie, Whitfield., and Martin E. Hellman. 1976. “New Directions in Cryptography.” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 22 (6): 644–54. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638.

Dijkstra, Edsger W. approx. 1964. “EWD-108: Een Algorithme Ter Voorkoming van de Dodelijke Omarming.” http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd01xx/EWD108.PDF.

———. approx. 1962. “EWD-35: Over de Sequentialiteit van Procesbeschrijvingen.” http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd00xx/EWD35.PDF.

———. 1965. “EWD-123: Cooperating Sequential Processes.”

———. 1972. “EWD-329 Information Streams Sharing a Finite Buffer.” http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd03xx/EWD329.PDF.

———. 1979. “EWD-703: A Tutorial on the Split Binary Semaphore.” http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd07xx/EWD703.PDF.

Downey, Allen B. 2009. The Little Book of Semaphores. Green Tea Press. http://greenteapress.com/semaphores/LittleBookOfSemaphores.pdf.

Gray, Jim N. 1978. “Notes on Data Base Operating Systems.” In Operating Systems: An Advanced Course, edited by R. Bayer, R. M. Graham, and G. Seegmüller, 393–481. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-08755-9_9.

Havelund, Klaus, and Thomas Pressburger. 2000. “Model Checking Java Programs Using Java PathFinder.” International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer 2: 366–81.

Havender, James W. 1968. “Avoiding Deadlock in Multitasking Systems.” IBM Syst. J. 7 (2): 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1147/sj.72.0074.

Herlihy, Maurice P., and Jeannette M. Wing. 1987. “Axioms for Concurrent Objects.” In Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGACT-SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, 13–26. POPL ’87. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/41625.41627.

———. 1990. “Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects.” ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 12 (3): 463–92. https://doi.org/10.1145/78969.78972.

Hewitt, Carl, Peter Bishop, and Richard Steiger. 1973. “A Universal Modular ACTOR Formalism for Artificial Intelligence.” In Proceedings of the 3rd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 235–45. IJCAI’73. San Francisco, CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc.

Hoare, C. A. R. 1973. “Towards a Theory of Parallel Programming.” In Operating Systems Techniques, edited by C. A. R. Hoare and R. H. Perrott. New York, NY: Academic Press.

———. 1974. “Monitors: An Operating System Structuring Concept.” Commun. ACM 17 (10): 549–57. https://doi.org/10.1145/355620.361161.

Holzmann, Gerard. 2011. The SPIN Model Checker: Primer and Reference Manual. 1st ed. Addison-Wesley Professional.

Kripke, Saul A. 1963. “Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic.” Acta Philosophica Fennica 16: 83–94.

Lamport, Leslie. 1978. “Time, Clocks, and the Ordering of Events in a Distributed System.” Comm. Of the ACM 21 (7): 558–65.

———. 1998. “The Part-Time Parliament.” Tocs 16 (2): 133–69.

———. 2002. Specifying Systems: The TLA+ Language and Tools for Hardware and Software Engineers. USA: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.

———. 2009. “The PlusCal Algorithm Language.” In Theoretical Aspects of Computing - ICTAC 2009, edited by Martin Leucker and Carroll Morgan, 36–60. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Lampson, Butler W., and David D. Redell. 1980. “Experience with Processes and Monitors in Mesa.” Commun. ACM 23 (2): 105–17. https://doi.org/10.1145/358818.358824.

Lipton, Richard J. 1975. “Reduction: A Method of Proving Properties of Parallel Programs.” Commun. ACM 18 (12): 717–21. https://doi.org/10.1145/361227.361234.

Liu, Yanhong A., and Scott D. Stoller. 2020. “Assurance of Distributed Algorithms and Systems: Runtime Checking of Safety and Liveness.” In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Runtime Verification (RV 2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60508-7_3.

Liu, Yanhong A., Scott D. Stoller, and Bo Lin. 2017. “From Clarity to Efficiency for Distributed Algorithms.” ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 39 (3). https://doi.org/10.1145/2994595.

Lowe, Gavin. 1995. “An Attack on the Needham-Schroeder Public-Key Authentication Protocol.” Inf. Process. Lett. 56 (3): 131–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(95)00144-2.

———. 1996. “Breaking and Fixing the Needham-Schroeder Public-Key Protocol Using FDR.” In Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, edited by Tiziana Margaria and Bernhard Steffen, 147–66. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Michael, Ellis, Doug Woos, Thomas Anderson, Michael D. Ernst, and Zachary Tatlock. 2019. “Teaching Rigorous Distributed Systems with Efficient Model Checking.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroSys Conference 2019. EuroSys ’19. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/3302424.3303947.

Michael, Maged M., and Michael L. Scott. 1996. “Simple, Fast, and Practical Non-Blocking and Blocking Concurrent Queue Algorithms.” In Proceedings of the 15th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC).

———. 1998. “Non-Blocking Algorithms and Preemption-Safe Locking on Multiprogrammed Shared Memory Multiprocessors.” Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 51 (1): 1–26.

Needham, Roger M., and Michael D. Schroeder. 1978. “Using Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks of Computers.” Commun. ACM 21 (12): 993–99. https://doi.org/10.1145/359657.359659.

Owicki, Susan S. 1975. “Axiomatic Proof Techniques for Parallel Programs.” PhD thesis.

Peterson, Gary L. 1981. “Myths about the Mutual Exclusion Problem.” Information Processing Letters 12 (3): 115–16. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(81)90106-X.

Renesse, Robbert van, and Fred B. Schneider. 2004. “Chain Replication for Supporting High Throughput and Availability.” In 6th Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation (OSDI 2004), San Francisco, California, USA, December 6-8, 2004, edited by Eric A. Brewer and Peter Chen, 91–104. USENIX Association. http://www.usenix.org/events/osdi04/tech/renesse.html.

Schlichting, Richard D., and Fred B. Schneider. 1983. “Fail-Stop Processors: An Approach to Designing Fault-Tolerant Computing Systems.” Tocs 1 (3): 222–38. https://doi.org/10.1145/357369.357371.

Schneider, Fred B. 1990. “Implementing Fault-Tolerant Services Using the State Machine Approach: A Tutorial.” Compsurv 22 (4): 299–319.

———. 1997. On Concurrent Programming. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Valmari, Antti. 1991. “Stubborn Sets for Reduced State Space Generation.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets: Advances in Petri Nets 1990, 491–515. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.